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18 May 2016

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. Compared with copper cable, fiber optic cable can support longer transmission distance, high speed, high bandwidth, etc. However, not everything is perfect. There are still some factors that may influence the transmission distance over fiber cables. This article will introduce the most common factors that limit the data transmission distance.

Fiber Optic Cable Type

Generally speaking, the maximum transmission distance is limited by dispersion in fiber optic cable. There are two types of dispersion that can affect the optical transmission distance. One is chromatic dispersion, which is the...

12 May 2016

As telecom technology advances in the past few decades, the size of transceiver modules has become smaller and smaller. Meanwhile, the rate of optical transceiver also becomes faster and faster, for it is ranging from 1.25 G, 2.5 G, 4 G to 10G, 40G and 100G, etc. However, when it comes to 10G, people found that the encapsulation is too small to keep many components. Thus, XFP modules were launched in 2002 as a new standard to solve this problem. Next, this article will introduce the 10G XFP optical transceivers in great details.

Introduction of XFP Transceiver

In fact, XFP is not the first 10G transceiver in the market. The 10G transceiver market has gone through 300Pin and XENPAK/XPAK/X2 before XFP came out. As these types of...

09 May 2016

In order to better satisfy the demands for high speed, wide bandwidth and high density, changes are taking place in the data center. Driven by the cloud services, the hyperscale/cloud data centers are becoming larger, more modular, more homogeneous with an architecture change from traditional 3-tier to flattened 2-tier topology. To deal with these changes and challenges, what will we need for optical interconnection a few years down the road? Here are the key trends to watch in 2016 which give you some guides to the roadmap.

Significant Increase in 100G & 25G Port Density

For easy understanding, we divide the data center into three parts—intra-rack, inter-rack and long span/inter-building. Within the data center rack, 10 GbE is...

06 May 2016

Quad small form-factor pluggable plus (QSFP+) direct attach copper (DAC) cables are suitable for in-rack connections between QSFP+ ports of EX Series switches. They are suitable for short distances of up to 16.4 ft (5 m), making them ideal for highly cost-effective networking connectivity within a rack and between adjacent racks. This article will introduce EX Series switches and QSFP+ DAC for EX Series switches.

Introduction to EX Series Switches

EX Series switches deliver scalable port densities and carrier-proven high availability features that consolidate legacy switch layers, helping to reduce capital and operational expenses and advance the economics of networking. For example, the EX 4200 series Ethernet switches with...

04 May 2016

In today’s data center, more bandwidth is needed to support the use of server virtualization where multiple virtual machines are combined on a single physical host server. To meet the ever growing need to cost-effectively deliver more bandwidth, SFP+ direct attach cables deliver lower power, lower latency and higher density for today’s data centers and storage area networks.

Direct attach cables (DAC) are high performance integrated duplex data link for bi-directional communication. And a SFP+ direct attach cable, also known as twinax cables, uses SFP+ MSA and copper “twinaxial” cable with SFP+ connectors on both sides, provides 10 Gigabit Ethernet connectivity between devices with SFP+ interfaces. SFP+ direct attach copper...

27 Apr 2016

The QSFP+ optical transceiver is the dominant transceiver form factor used for 40 Gigabit Ethernet applications. In the year of 2010, the IEEE standard 802.3ba released several 40-Gbps based solutions, including a 40GBASE-SR4 parallel optics solution for multimode fiber. Since then, several other 40G interfaces have been released, including 40GBASE-CSR4, which is similar to 40GBASE-SR4 but extends the distance capabilities.

As is know to all, two switches are connected by either transceiver modules or cables. For example, if you simply wanted to cable up two Nexus 3000s with 40GbE, the options are multi mode fiber or twinax copper. We’ll only cover the fiber throughout this post as that is where most of the questions are in recent...

20 Apr 2016

With the wide deployment of 40 Gigabit Ethernet , many companies are upgrading data center from 10G to 40G. In order to realize the migration, there are several factors that need to be considered. First, the potential for a reconfiguration of the physical layer of the network based on the reduced reach of the OM3/OM4 multimode optics from 10GBASE-SR (300/400 m) to 40GBASE-SR4 (100/150 m). Second, the existing fiber optic cabling should be upgraded based on the additional fiber count needed to support 40GBASE-SR4 parallel optics. So manufacturers produce SMF&MMF 40G QSFP+ transceiver.

Introduction to SMF & MMF 40G QSFP+ Transceiver

Generally speaking, a fiber optic transceiver may either operate on multimode fiber (MMF) or...

19 Apr 2016

In the past few decades, the Ethernet industry has been working on providing solutions to increase the speed of Ethernet from 1 to 10 gigabits per second. For enterprise LAN applications, 10 Gigabit Ethernet enables network managers to scale their Ethernet networks from 10 Mbps to 10,000 Mbps, while leveraging their investments in Ethernet as they increase their network performance. There are various types of cables and transceivers available for making Ethernet connections at speeds of 10 Gigabit per second. This article will introduce both the copper and fiber connectivity options for 10 Gigabit Ethernet.

Transceiver Options

Standards bodies initially offered several options for the 10-Gigabit transceiver. The one that ultimately...

15 Apr 2016
What Is 40 Gigabit Ethernet?

With the development of telecommunications, 40Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) standard was launched by the IEEE in June 2010, which enables the transfer of Ethernet frames at speeds of up to 40 gigabits per second (Gbps). It also addresses physical layer specifications for communication across backplanes, copper cabling, multimode fiber and single-mode fiber. Nowadays, 40G applications are gaining more popularity with the development of the 40GbE. It become a new generation of high-speed, high-demand, computing applications and technologies.

Like 1GbE or 10GbE network, the heart of the 40GbE network layer is a pair of transceiver modules which are connected by a patch cable. The transceiver modules and patch...

13 Apr 2016
24-fiber vs. 12-fiber connectors and assemblies

With the announcement of the IEEE 802.3ba 40GBASE-SR4 and 100GBASE-SR10 standards in 2010, 24-fiber connectivity has been adopted as the ideal migration solution in the data center. At the same time, there are also some confusion and misinformation with the growth of 24-fiber MPO/MTP solutions within industry circles. This article will talk about two misconceptions about 24-fiber connectors and assemblies in MTP/MPO connectivity.

Using 24-fiber cabling throughout an entire channel provides extra flexibility, as users can easily migrate from 10G to 40G or 100G by simply swapping out the connectivity at the end of the channel. Pre-terminated cabling using 24-fiber connectors provides...